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Computer Facts

Date Sheet of  CSJM University For 2019: For more updates subscribe our page and go to the official website of CSJM University(www.csjmuniversity.org / www.kanpurunversity.org)

Date Sheet(Click Here To Download)

To Download this date sheet follow the simple step:

Method 1.
1. Click the right mouse button on the image.
2. Now a dialogue box will appears.
3. Click on the "Open in new window". The image will appears in new window.
4. Now click the right mouse button, a dialogue box will appear, and select the         "Save as image " option.
5. The image is downloaded successfully.

Method 2.

1. Click on the "caption" of the image, a page will appear,
2. Click to right mouse button and Click to "save as image.."


Fun with Computer

What is a Computer?

“Computer is an electronic machine made up of various devices that is used to generate meaningful information from raw data.” In general the easiest definition of computer is that “The computer is that electronic device which makes our work easier, with high accuracy of work and saves much of our time.” The full form of the computer is:


                          C       ---       Commonly
                          O       ---       Operated
                          M       ---       Machine
                          P        ---       Particularly
                          U       ---       Used for
                          T       ---       Training
                          E       ---       Education
                          R       ---       Research

Who is the father of the Computer?

Generallythere are hundreds of people who have major contributions to the field of computing. Charles Babbage was considered to be the father of computing after his concept, and then later the invention of the Analytical Engine in 1837. The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, and integrated memory; hailed as the first general-purpose computer concept.


*Do You know: ENIAC, the first successful US computer had 20,000 vacuum tubes, while UNIVAC I, the first successful commercial system, used, 5,000 tubes.

Data and Information

Data refers to collection of numbers, characters symbol etc. in its raw form. Information is the meaningful output which we get after processing the data.


What is date?
The information which we store in the computer is known as data.

Basic Units of Computer

As we have to know about the Basic of computer which is also related to our topic is how many types of basic unit in computer, So Let us know about the basic unit of computer. There are four basic functions of a computer which are:-

      1.   Input           2. Processing         3. Output              4. Storage

As we know, any types of computer in the world are made up of four types of devices which are:-

1.   Input Devices  2. Processing Devices  3. Output Devices   4. Storage Devices

Input Devices

The Devices through which we enter data are called Input Devices. The most commonly used input devices are keyboard and mouse. Let us discuss some of the input devices.

    1.   Keyboard
    2.   Mouse
    3.   Scanner
    4.   Microphone
    5.   Joystick
    6.   Light pen
    7.   Web Camera

Processing Devices
Processing devices are the devices that help the computer to process data. C.P.U.  is known as the processing device of the computer.

Output Devices

Output devices are used to display the result after processing the data. Let us discuss some output devices:

      1.    Monitor                2.  Printer              3. Speakers


Storage Devices
Devices that help to store data and information are called Storage Devices.


Devices with parts and their description:

Keyboard
Keyboard

Keyboard is used to enter data and instruction into the computer by typing. A keyboard can be divided into four parts:
Typing Keys – Alphabet keys and numeric keys
Function Keys- F1 to F12 keys
Navigation Keys – Arrow keys, Home, End, Page Up and Page Down keys
Control Keys­­­­-­­­­­ Ctrl, Shift, Alt, Windows and Esc keys


*Do You know: ENIAC, the first successful US computer had 20,000 vacuum tubes, while UNIVAC I, the first successful commercial system, used, 5,000 tubes.


Mouse
The mouse is used to control the cursor on the screen. It is also used to draw pictures, select objects and text on the computer.



Scanner
It is a device that reads text or pictures printed on a paper and translate the information in such a way that a computer can understand. There are three types of scanner : Flat Bed Scanner, Sheet Fed Scanner and Hand Held Scanner.

Microphone
Microphone is an input device which is used to record voice.

Joystick
Joystick is an input device used in playing video games. It has a stick which can be moved in all directions and controls the movement of a pointer.

Light Pen
It allows the user to point to displayed objects or draw on the screen.

Web Camera
Web Camera is a device that is used to capture still images and Videos.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

 It is a type of a processing device which is used to help the computer to process and judge the data for the output. It is also known as the brain of the computer. This helps the computer to process the data in order to produce valid and desirable output or result.

CPU is divided into three parts:

    1.   ALU- It stands for Arithmetic Logic Unit. It helps to do all mathematical and logical calculations.
    2.   CU-  It stands for Control Unit. It manages all the operations of a computer.
    3.   MU- It stands for Memory Unit. It stores information temporarily and permanently according to your need.

Monitor

It is the screen of the computer and looks similar to a television in appearance. It displays the results after processing the data or instruction given by an input device. The output that we get on a monitor is called a soft copy. It is also called VDU (Visual Display Unit).

Printer
As the name suggests printer is used for printing. The output that is printed on a paper using a printer is called a hard copy. There are three types of printers:
    1.   Laser printer      2. Ink-jet printer          3. Dot matrix printer

Speakers
Speakers are used to listen to music and play sound effects from the computer.

Memory
The storage capacity of a computer is called its memory. It helps the computer to store data and information. There are two types of a computer memory:

Primary Memory
It is the main memory of the computer. It is the main area where data is stored. Primary Memory is of two types:

RAM- It stands for Random Access Memory. It is read and write memory. Data is lost when power is switch off.

ROM- It stands for Read Only Memory. It is read only memory. Data can only be read from ROM but cannot be written into it. It is permanent. Data is not lost when power is switch off.

Secondary Memory
The memory where the data is stored on a long term basis is called Secondary Memory. It is used to store data permanently.
Some of the examples of Secondary Memory are: Hard Disk, CD or DVD, Pen Drive, etc.

Hard Disk: Hard Disk is generally used to store a large amount of data.

CD (Compact Disk): CD is a small, portable disc used to record and store data, text and other information. It stores up to 700 MB of data. It is also used to record and play audio or video files. There are two types of CDs:
    1.   CD-ROM – The data can be written only once but can be read number of times.

   2.   CD-RW – You can read as well as write the data a number of times. It is also called re-writable CD.

   3.   DVD (Digital Versatile Disk): DVD is similar to CD in shape. It can store more amount of data than a CD. Storing capacity of a DVD varies from 4.7 GB to 17 GB.

Blue ray disc- It is used for recording and playing of high-definition video (HD), as well as stoing large amount of data. It has more than five times the storage capacity of DVD’s.

Pen Drive: It is small portable device that stores large amount of data. It can be plugged into my computer with a USB drive. Now a days pen drives are available with a storage capacity ranging from 2GB to 32GB. It is easy to use and carry.

Units of Memory
A computer stores and processes data or information in the form of binary numbers. The smallest unit of data/information is called Bit (Binary Digit). A Bit can have only a single value 0(OFF state) or 1(ON state). A group of 8 bits will make a Byte. Other units of memory are:


1 Nibble
4 Bits
1 Byte
8 Bits
1Kilo Byte
1024 Bytes
1 Mega Bytes
1024 Kb
1 Giga Bytes
1024 MB
1 Tera Bytes
1024 GB
1 Peta Bytes
1024 GB

Some shortcut of computers to became the professional user:

Usually we always use computer with mouse, keyboard and cpu but does anyone know that we can also run computer with some codes which saves our time and we will become the professional user of the computer. So now let us see what the genius and important codes of computer which we can use in computer for basic programmes like ms word, ms excel, windows start menu, etc.
There are some important tips or codes for the basic learning of computer and became a professional user of basic programmes like excel, word, etc. The Codes are listed below:

Ctrl + A       = To select all the contents written on the computer screen
Ctrl + S         = To save the content which we have selected
Ctrl + X       = To cut the selected content
Ctrl + C       = To copy the selected content
Ctrl + V       = To paste the selected content
Ctrl + B       = To bold the selected content
Ctrl + I       = To Italicize the selected content
Ctrl + U       = To  underline the selected content
Ctrl + N       = To select the new directory/file/slide/ or page
Ctrl + Z       = To undo the work we have done
Ctrl + Y         = To redo the work we have done
Shift + del      = To delete the selected content from computer(including recycle                        bin)
Ctrl + Esc / Start / Windows button = To go on the start menu of the computer.
Alt + F4         = To shut down the computer or any running program
Windows button + D = To display or hide the desktop
Windows button + L = To lock your PC or switch accounts
Alt + Tab       = To switch between open apps
Windows key + start typing = To search something on PC
Ctrl + Plus(+)   = To zoom in of a large number of items, like apps pinned to the                         start button
Ctrl + minus(-)   = To zoom out of a large number of items, like apps pinned to the                       start button
Ctrl + scroll wheel = To Zoom in or out of a large number of items, like apps                                pinned to the start screen
Windows key + spacebar = To switch input language and keyboard layout
Windows key + Ctrl + spacebar = To change to a previously selected input
Windows key + Tab = To cycle through recently used apps (except desktop apps)
Windows key + Ctrl + Tab = To cycle through recently used apps (except desktop                                   apps)
Windows key + Shift + Tab = Cycle through recently used app (except desktop                                      apps) in reverse order
Windows key + Shift + Period (.) =  To cycle though open apps
Esc               = To stop or exit the current task
F1                = To display help
F2                = To rename the selected item
F3                = To search for a file or folder
F4                = To display the address bar list in file explorer
F5                = To refresh the active window
F6                = To cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
F10              = To activate the menu bar in the active app
Alt + Esc         = To cycle through items in the order which they were opened
Alt + underlined letter = To perform the command for that letter
Alt + Enter         = To display the properties for the selected item
Alt + Left arrow  = Back
Alt + Right arrow = Forward
Alt + Page down = To move down one screen
Alt + Page up     = To move up one screen
Alt + Tab          = To switch between open apps (except desktop apps)
Ctrl + F4              =  To close the active document ( in apps that are full-screen                           and allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
Ctrl + Alt + Tab    = Use the arrow keys to switch between all open apps
Ctrl + arrow key ( to move to an item) + Spacebar = Select multiple individual                           items in a window or on the desktop
Ctrl + Shift with an arrow key = To select a block of text
Ctrl + Shift + Esc = Open task manager
Ctrl + Shift = Switch the keyboard layout when multiple keyboard layouts are                      available
Ctrl + Spacebar = Turn the Chinese input method editor (IME) on or off
Shift + F10      = Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
Shift with any arrow key = Window or on the desktop, or select text within a                                      document
Right arrow      = Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu
Left arrow        = Open the next menu to the left or close a submenu
Esc                = Stop or leave the current task

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3. Click on the "Open in new window". The image will appears in new window.
4. Now click the right mouse button, a dialogue box will appear, and select the         "Save as image" option.
5. The image is downloaded successfully.

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1. Click on the "caption" of the image, a page will appear,
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